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“How-to” guides | Django documentation | Django

Details: “How-to” guides¶. Here you’ll find short answers to “How do I….?” types of questions. These how-to guides don’t cover topics in depth – you’ll find that material in the Using Django and the API Reference.However, these guides will help you quickly accomplish common tasks.

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Managing files | Django documentation | Django

Details: File storage¶. Behind the scenes, Django delegates decisions about how and where to store files to a file storage system. This is the object that actually understands things like file systems, opening and reading files, etc.

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Deployment checklist | Django documentation | Django

Details: Run manage.py check--deploy ¶. Some of the checks described below can be automated using the check--deploy option. Be sure to run it against your production settings file as described in the option’s documentation.

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Writing and running tests | Django documentation | Django

Details: Writing tests¶. Django’s unit tests use a Python standard library module: unittest.This module defines tests using a class-based approach. Here is an example which subclasses from django.test.TestCase, which is a subclass of unittest.TestCase that runs each test inside a transaction to provide isolation:

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Serializing Django objects | Django documentation | Django

Details: Serializing Django objects¶. Django’s serialization framework provides a mechanism for “translating” Django models into other formats. Usually these other formats will be text-based and used for sending Django data over a wire, but it’s possible for a serializer to handle any format (text-based or not).

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Applications | Django documentation | Django

Details: Projects and applications¶. The term project describes a Django web application. The project Python package is defined primarily by a settings module, but it usually contains other things. For example, when you run django-admin startproject mysite you’ll get a mysite project directory that contains a mysite Python package with settings.py, urls.py, asgi.py and wsgi.py.

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Testing in Django | Django documentation | Django

Details: Testing in Django¶. Automated testing is an extremely useful bug-killing tool for the modern Web developer. You can use a collection of tests – a test suite – to solve, or avoid, a number of problems:. When you’re writing new code, you can use tests to validate your code works as expected.

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Request and response objects | Django documentation | Django

Details: Quick overview¶. Django uses request and response objects to pass state through the system. When a page is requested, Django creates an HttpRequest object that contains metadata about the request. Then Django loads the appropriate view, passing the HttpRequest as the first argument to the view function. Each view is responsible for returning an HttpResponse object.

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Model Meta options | Django documentation | Django

Details: managed ¶ Options.managed¶ Defaults to True, meaning Django will create the appropriate database tables in migrate or as part of migrations and remove them as part of a flush management command. That is, Django manages the database tables’ lifecycles. If False, no database table creation, modification, or deletion operations will be performed for this model.

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QuerySet API reference | Django documentation | Django

Details: QuerySet API reference¶. This document describes the details of the QuerySet API. It builds on the material presented in the model and database query guides, so you’ll probably want to read and understand those documents before reading this one.. Throughout this reference we’ll use the example Weblog models presented in the database query guide.

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Templates | Django documentation | Django

Details: Templates¶. Being a web framework, Django needs a convenient way to generate HTML dynamically. The most common approach relies on templates. A template contains the static parts of the desired HTML output as well as some special syntax describing how dynamic content will be inserted.

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Managing static files (e.g. images, JavaScript, CSS) - Django

Details: Serving the files. In addition to these configuration steps, you’ll also need to actually serve the static files. During development, if you use django.contrib.staticfiles, this will be done automatically by runserver when DEBUG is set to True (see django.contrib.staticfiles.views.serve()).. This method is grossly inefficient and probably insecure, so it is unsuitable for production.

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Sending email | Django documentation | Django

Details: Sending email¶. Although Python provides a mail sending interface via the smtplib module, Django provides a couple of light wrappers over it. These wrappers are provided to make sending email extra quick, to help test email sending during development, and to provide support for platforms that can’t use SMTP.

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Custom Lookups | Django documentation | Django

Details: A transformer example¶. The custom lookup above is great, but in some cases you may want to be able to chain lookups together. For example, let’s suppose we are building an application where we want to make use of the abs() operator. We have an Experiment model which records a start value, end value, and the change (start - end). We would like to find all experiments where the change was

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Upgrading Django to a newer version | Django documentation

Details: Upgrading Django to a newer version¶. While it can be a complex process at times, upgrading to the latest Django version has several benefits: New features and improvements are added.

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The contenttypes framework | Django documentation | Django

Details: The ContentType model¶ class ContentType¶. Each instance of ContentType has two fields which, taken together, uniquely describe an installed model:. app_label¶. The name of the application the model is part of. This is taken from the app_label attribute of the model, and includes only the last part of the application’s Python import path; django.contrib.contenttypes, for example, becomes

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Providing initial data for models | Django documentation

Details: Providing data with fixtures¶. You can also provide data using fixtures, however, this data isn’t loaded automatically, except if you use TransactionTestCase.fixtures.. A fixture is a collection of data that Django knows how to import into a database.

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GEOS API | Django documentation | Django

Details: What is GEOS?¶ GEOS stands for Geometry Engine - Open Source, and is a C++ library, ported from the Java Topology Suite.GEOS implements the OpenGIS Simple Features for SQL spatial predicate functions and spatial operators. GEOS, now an OSGeo project, was initially developed and maintained by Refractions Research of Victoria, Canada.

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Django shortcut functions | Django documentation | Django

Details: Django shortcut functions¶. The package django.shortcuts collects helper functions and classes that “span” multiple levels of MVC. In other words, these functions/classes introduce controlled coupling for convenience’s sake.

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Database transactions | Django documentation | Django

Details: Per-request transactions and streaming responses. When a view returns a StreamingHttpResponse, reading the contents of the response will often execute code to generate the content.Since the view has already returned, such code runs outside of the transaction.

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django-admin and manage.py | Django documentation | Django

Details: django-admin and manage.py ¶. django-admin is Django’s command-line utility for administrative tasks. This document outlines all it can do. In addition, manage.py is automatically created in each Django project. It does the same thing as django-admin but also sets the DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE environment variable so that it points to your project’s settings.py file.

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Pagination | Django documentation | Django

Details: Note. Note that you can give Paginator a list/tuple, a Django QuerySet, or any other object with a count() or __len__() method. When determining the number of objects contained in the passed object, Paginator will first try calling count(), then fallback to using len() if the passed object has no count() method. This allows objects such as Django’s QuerySet to use a more efficient count

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Middleware | Django documentation | Django

Details: The django.middleware.gzip.GZipMiddleware compresses content for browsers that understand GZip compression (all modern browsers).. This middleware should be placed before any other middleware that need to read or write the response body so that compression happens afterward.

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Deploying Django | Django documentation | Django

Details: Contents. Deploying Django; Browse. Prev: Writing a custom storage system Next: How to deploy with WSGI Table of contents; General Index; Python Module Index; You are here: Django 3.1 documentation “How-to” guides

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Form handling with class-based views | Django

Details: Model forms¶. Generic views really shine when working with models. These generic views will automatically create a ModelForm, so long as they can work out which model class to use:. If the model attribute is given, that model class will be used.; If get_object() returns an object, the class of that object will be used.; If a queryset is given, the model for that queryset will be used.

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Getting started | Django documentation | Django

Details: See also. If you’re new to Python, you might want to start by getting an idea of what the language is like.Django is 100% Python, so if you’ve got minimal comfort with Python you’ll probably get a lot more out of Django.

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Using mixins with class-based views | Django documentation

Details: Django’s built-in class-based views provide a lot of functionality, but some of it you may want to use separately. For instance, you may want to write a view that renders a template to make the HTTP response, but you can’t use TemplateView; perhaps you need to render a template only on POST, with GET doing something else entirely. While you could use TemplateResponse directly, this will

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Writing views | Django documentation | Django

Details: Let’s step through this code one line at a time: First, we import the class HttpResponse from the django.http module, along with Python’s datetime library.. Next, we define a function called current_datetime.This is the view function. Each view function takes an HttpRequest object as its first parameter, which is typically named request.. Note that the name of the view function doesn’t

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Database Functions | Django documentation | Django

Details: Warning. A Python value passed to Coalesce on MySQL may be converted to an incorrect type unless explicitly cast to the correct database type: >>> from django.db.models import DateTimeField >>> from django.db.models.functions import Cast, Coalesce >>> from django.utils import timezone >>> now = timezone. now >>> Coalesce ('updated', Cast (now, DateTimeField ()))

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Form fields | Django documentation | Django

Details: Form fields¶ class Field(**kwargs)¶. When you create a Form class, the most important part is defining the fields of the form. Each field has custom validation logic, along with a few other hooks. Field.clean(value)¶ Although the primary way you’ll use Field classes is in Form classes, you can also instantiate them and use them directly to get a better idea of how they work.

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The staticfiles app | Django documentation | Django

Details: ManifestStaticFilesStorage ¶ class storage.ManifestStaticFilesStorage¶. A subclass of the StaticFilesStorage storage backend which stores the file names it handles by appending the MD5 hash of the file’s content to the filename. For example, the file css/styles.css would also be saved as css/styles.55e7cbb9ba48.css. The purpose of this storage is to keep serving the old files in case some

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Django Exceptions | Django documentation | Django

Details: The SynchronousOnlyOperation exception is raised when code that is only allowed in synchronous Python code is called from an asynchronous context (a thread with a running asynchronous event loop). These parts of Django are generally heavily reliant on thread-safety to function and don’t work correctly under coroutines sharing the same thread.

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Customizing authentication in Django | Django

Details: Either way, authenticate() should check the credentials it gets and return a user object that matches those credentials if the credentials are valid. If they’re not valid, it should return None.. request is an HttpRequest and may be None if it wasn’t provided to authenticate() (which passes it on to the backend).. The Django admin is tightly coupled to the Django User object.

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Generic editing views | Django documentation | Django

Details: UpdateView ¶ class django.views.generic.edit.UpdateView¶. A view that displays a form for editing an existing object, redisplaying the form with validation errors (if there are any) and saving changes to the object.

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Cross Site Request Forgery protection | Django

Details: The decorator method¶. Rather than adding CsrfViewMiddleware as a blanket protection, you can use the csrf_protect decorator, which has exactly the same functionality, on particular views that need the protection. It must be used both on views that insert the CSRF token in the output, and on those that accept the POST form data. (These are often the same view function, but not always).

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Generic date views | Django documentation | Django

Details: Generic date views¶. Date-based generic views, provided in django.views.generic.dates, are views for displaying drilldown pages for date-based data.

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Widgets | Django documentation | Django

Details: supports_microseconds¶. An attribute that defaults to True.If set to False, the microseconds part of datetime and time values will be set to 0.. format_value(value)¶. Cleans and returns a value for use in the widget template. value isn’t guaranteed to be valid input, therefore subclass implementations should program defensively.. get_context(name, value, attrs)¶

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Custom template tags and filters | Django documentation

Details: Custom template tags and filters¶. Django’s template language comes with a wide variety of built-in tags and filters designed to address the presentation logic needs of your application. Nevertheless, you may find yourself needing functionality that is not covered by the core set of template primitives.

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FAQ: Using Django | Django documentation | Django

Details: How do I use image and file fields?¶ Using a FileField or an ImageField in a model takes a few steps:. In your settings file, you’ll need to define MEDIA_ROOT as the full path to a directory where you’d like Django to store uploaded files. (For performance, these files are not stored in the database.)

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Custom template backend | Django documentation | Django

Details: Custom backends¶. Here’s how to implement a custom template backend in order to use another template system. A template backend is a class that inherits django.template.backends.base.BaseEngine.It must implement get_template() and optionally from_string().Here’s an example for a fictional foobar template library:

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TemplateResponse and SimpleTemplateResponse | Django

Details: TemplateResponse and SimpleTemplateResponse ¶. Standard HttpResponse objects are static structures. They are provided with a block of pre-rendered content at time of construction, and while that content can be modified, it isn’t in a form that makes it easy to perform modifications.

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File Uploads | Django documentation | Django

Details: File Uploads¶. When Django handles a file upload, the file data ends up placed in request.FILES (for more on the request object see the documentation for request and response objects).This document explains how files are stored on disk and in memory, and how to customize the default behavior.

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Writing custom django-admin commands | Django

Details: Writing custom django-admin commands¶. Applications can register their own actions with manage.py.For example, you might want to add a manage.py action for a Django app that you’re distributing. In this document, we will be building a custom closepoll command for the polls application from the tutorial.. To do this, add a management/commands directory to the application.

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django.contrib.auth | Django documentation | Django

Details: django.contrib.auth ¶. This document provides API reference material for the components of Django’s authentication system. For more details on the usage of these components or how to customize authentication and authorization see the authentication topic guide.

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Introduction to class-based views | Django documentation

Details: Using mixins¶. Mixins are a form of multiple inheritance where behaviors and attributes of multiple parent classes can be combined. For example, in the generic class-based views there is a mixin called TemplateResponseMixin whose primary purpose is to define the method render_to_response().When combined with the behavior of the View base class, the result is a TemplateView class that will

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Multiple databases | Django documentation | Django

Details: Automatic database routing¶. The easiest way to use multiple databases is to set up a database routing scheme. The default routing scheme ensures that objects remain ‘sticky’ to their original database (i.e., an object retrieved from the foo database will be saved on the same database). The default routing scheme ensures that if a database isn’t specified, all queries fall back to the

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How to use sessions | Django documentation | Django

Details: Configuring the session engine¶. By default, Django stores sessions in your database (using the model django.contrib.sessions.models.Session).Though this is convenient, in some setups it’s faster to store session data elsewhere, so Django can be configured to store session data on your filesystem or in your cache.

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Performing raw SQL queries | Django documentation | Django

Details: Explore the ORM before using raw SQL! The Django ORM provides many tools to express queries without writing raw SQL. For example: The QuerySet API is extensive.; You can annotate and aggregate using many built-in database functions.Beyond those, you can create custom query expressions. Before using raw SQL, explore the ORM.Ask on django-users or the #django IRC channel to see if the ORM

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