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How to Host a Website on an Apache Web Server

Details: The Apache HTTP Server (commonly referred to simply as Apache), is a free and open-source web server software brought to you by the Apache Software Foundation.Apache has been around for more than 2 decades and is considered beginner-friendly.

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How to Generate Self-Signed SSL Certificates using OpenSSL

Details: Ideally, SSL certificates are issued by publicly trusted certificate authorities (e.g.Let’s Encrypt, Comodo, Verisign) to provide authentication and encryption on the internet.However, you could obtain an SSL certificate without going through a third-party certificate authority — this is what is referred to as a self-signed certificate.

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How to Find and Close Open Ports in Linux

Details: Network and Server administration is one of the key areas in which Linux is actually preferred to any other operating system. Hence most data …

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How to Find Top 10 Running Processes by Memory and CPU Usage

Details: Linux is quite popular for its command-line utilities, which not only make any task at hand easier but also saves a lot of time, which is otherwise wasted in graphical UI based utilities.. This is one of the reasons why Linux is a preferred operating system for servers and administrative machines. Combine the knowledge of Linux commands and shell scripting and you have a proper toolkit of

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How to Check Your Server Load in Linux

Details: One of the sectors where Linux has been at the forefront is the Web server industry. Linux distributions act as servers for a high majority of the websites on the Internet. Apart from websites, they are also used nowadays for Software as a Service, Infrastructure as a Service, etc. platforms, all thanks to its ecosystem centered around security.

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How to Add Text to the Beginning of File in Linux

Details: Add Text to First Line of File Using sed Command. sed (short for ‘Stream Editor‘) is a command-line editor in Linux, that is used to perform operations like writing text to a file, find and replace, etc.. sed is a complex command with a lot of options to edit files in various ways. We will be using particular features of sed to add text to the beginning of a file.

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How to Store a Linux Command as a Variable in Shell Script

Details: Shell scripting is quite popularly used to automate stuff in Linux. It is used not only for system and server administration purposes but also by regular Linux users for …

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View the Contents of a File in Linux Command Line

Details: Let us take a look at a few such commands. View Contents of File Using Cat Command. A cat command is the most commonly used command to view the contents of a file. The syntax to use cat is quite simple, as shown below: $ cat samplefile.txt View Contents of File

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How to Send An Email With File Attachment from Command Line

Details: In this article, we will learn how to send an email with a file attachment using the mail command in Linux.

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How to Check Linux Commands History by Dates

Details: The history command in Linux is used to view previously executed commands from the terminal. It will show a list of commands, with an ‘id’ next to each command.. View History Last Executed Linux Commands. The historically run commands are stored in a dedicated file by the Linux shell.

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Completely Uninstall MySQL Server in Ubuntu

Details: While package management in Ubuntu, as in most Linux operating systems nowadays, makes it extremely easy to install, upgrade and delete a piece of software, some software is a bit more complex in nature and contains multiple configuration folders, etc.. One such complex software is MySQL Server.Uninstalling MySQL Server does not simply amount to running ‘apt purge‘ as is done usually.

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How to Host a Website on NGINX Web Server

Details: In this tutorial, you will learn how to install an NGINX webserver to host a simple HTML website running on a Linux platform.. Install NGINX Web Server in Linux. On Ubuntu and Debian-based distributions, run the command below to install NGINX. $ sudo apt install nginx -y On Red Hat Linux and related distributions, you might need to first add the EPEL repository with the command below.

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How to Disable SSH Login to Specific User in Linux

Details: As you might already know, SSH (Secure Shell) is a network protocol for securely accessing a computer remotely.The server and client software in Linux are thereby known as SSH Server and SSH Client respectively and have many implementations.. By default, SSH allows you to log in to any user of the computer, as long as you have the password for the user. . However, this …

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How to Add a New MySQL User with GRANT Permissions

Details: MySQL is one of the most widely used relational database management systems all over the IT industry. Mostly Linux-based operating systems are preferred for deployments of databases huge in size, and thus MySQL is very commonly deployed over Linux and used in the backend of an application.. Today, we will learn how to add a new user in MySQL and how to add privileges for the …

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How to Set Static IP Address on Ubuntu Linux

Details: On Ubuntu 18.04 and later versions, there is a new way to set an IP address i.e., Netplan.This tutorial describes how to set an IP address from the command line on Ubuntu Linux by using the Netplan utility.. Set an IP Address with Netplan on Ubuntu

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How to Change the Output Color of ‘Echo’ in Linux

Details: The echo command in Linux is used to display a string or a set of strings onto the terminal. The string(s) is passed as an argument to the command. The echo command also comes with a set of options to manipulate how the output is displayed.. Terminals usually have default themes with light-colored text on a dark background or dark-colored text on a light background.

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How to Work with Foreground and Background Process in Linux

Details: An important concept to understand when working with the Linux process is what is the foreground and background process and how to control them. In Linux, if you execute any programs a process will be created with a unique ID (PID) and by default, the process runs in the foreground.. Let’s take a simple curl command – when you send a request to download a zip file over the internet, curl

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How to Backup All MySQL Databases from Command Line

Details: MySQL is a relational database management system and is used widely all over the IT industry for efficient data storage. In Linux, MySQL is available in standard installation packages of almost all major Linux distributions. They install not only the MySQL Client and Server but also some other database utilities.. One such utility is MySQLDump.There are cases when MySQL …

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How to Find and Delete Empty Directories in Linux

Details: Many times empty directories get cluttered in the Linux file system, and it becomes a difficult task to manually search for and delete each of them.

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How to Check CPU Information in Linux

Details: The CPU Information in any machine includes information about the processor, the vendor details, model name, architecture, speed of processing, etc. In Linux, CPU information is stored in a system file, which can be either read using a text editor, or it can be read and used in an administrative shell script. Open the file /proc/cpuinfo using a text editor of your choice.

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How to Redirect Output to /dev/null in Linux

Details: In Linux, programs are very commonly accessed using the command line and the output, as such, is displayed on the terminal screen.

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How to Move Large Number of Files in Linux

Details: To move files from one directory to another, the ‘mv‘ command is used in Linux.This command is available in Linux by default and can be used to move files as well as directories.

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How to Set a Static IP Address in CentOS Linux

Details: An IP (Internet Protocol) Address is a unique numerical representation of a computer on a network.Every computer connected to the Internet is identified by an IP Address. Usually, IP addresses are dynamically assigned to a computer by a dedicated server called DHCP Server (Dynamic Host Control Protocol), and hence change from time to time as and when the connection is lost and …

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How to Verify SHA256 Checksum of File in Linux

Details: Internet security is one of the most important aspects when it comes to the world wide web. There has been constant research and development to improve the security of applications and files on the Internet and thus to prevent malicious use.

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How to Check a Port is Open on a Remote Linux System

Details: A Network Port, simply known as a Port, is a logical number assigned to a process running on any machine.We know that on the Internet (or on any network) a machine is identified by its hostname.. The hostname can be simply the IP address of the machine, or a fully qualified domain name. A port number is assigned to each program running on the host machine; thus the client …

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How to Block a Port Using a Firewall in Linux

Details: A firewall is either a software-based or, in some cases, a hardware-based security system for networks. It automatically monitors traffic inflow and outflow on the system and blocks certain kinds of data flow based on rules, which are pre-configured.

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How to Install Guest Additions in Virtualbox VM

Details: In the previous article, we have seen how to install Centos 7 Minimal on VirtualBox.In this article, you will learn how to install guest additions in VirtualBox.. Guest additions are drivers and software applications that enable some of the features in VirtualBox which is not enabled by default.. Guest additions features include:

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How to Find Files Based on Timestamp in Linux

Details: The find command in Linux is used to search for files and folders based on different parameters. These parameters can be the filename, size, type of file, etc.. One such parameter is the timestamp of the file. In Linux (and all Unix based file systems) there are 3 timestamps maintained for every file:. Last Modification Time; Last Access Time

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What is ‘> /dev/null 2>&1’ in Linux

Details: /dev/null is a pseudo-device file in Linux, which is used to discard output coming from programs, especially the ones executed on the command line. This file behaves like a sink, i.e. a target file which can be written, however as soon as any stream of …

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How to Install CentOS 7 Minimal in Virtualbox

Details: In the previous article, we have seen how to install Virtualbox in different flavors of Linux.Now it’s time to choose and install a Guest OS. You can check the official page to check the list of supported Guest OS.

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How to Get Filename from the Full Path in Linux

Details: The full path of a file in Linux refers to the complete address including directories and subdirectories using which the file can be located. Every operating system …

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4 Ways to Create New File in Linux

Details: Conclusion. We learned about multiple ways to create a new file in Linux. There are obviously, even more ways to create a new file, and every individual application usually has the ability to create a new file of its respective format.

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How to Add a New Device to BTRFS File System in Linux

Details: When you start to run out of storage space on your attached Btrfs drive, you can easily expand it by adding a new device. In this tutorial, we are going to describe how to add a new device to the existing BTRFS B-tree file system in Linux.. Prerequisites

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How Do I Escape Spaces in Paths for Scp in Linux

Details: The Secure Copy tool (scp) is an easy way to securely copy files to and from remote computers.But frustration can easily set in when scp does not work correctly due to spaces in file names and/or folder paths.. In this tutorial, we will show you 3 ways to avoid scp errors arising from having spaces in path names.

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How to Copy Files with Specific File Extension Recursively

Details: In Linux, the command ‘cp‘, which standards for ‘Copy‘ is used to copy files and folders to another folder.It is available by default in Linux as part of the GNU Coreutils set of tools.. The most basic use of the cp command is to specify the files to be copied as the arguments and to specify the target folder as the last argument. $ cp file1 file2 file3 fileN target_folder/

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How to Install WordPress with LAMP Stack on Ubuntu 20.04

Details: WordPress is a free and open-source content management system that is very popular among bloggers, but it can be used for more than just blogging. With WordPress, you can create powerful dynamic websites, mobile apps, and web apps.. In this tutorial, we are going to show you how you can download and install WordPress with the LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP) stack on Ubuntu …

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How to Fix /bin/rm: cannot execute [Argument list too long]

Details: The rm command is used in Linux to delete files and directories. It can be used to delete a few files by specifying each file name, or it can be used with the -r argument (recursive) to delete a directory and the entire directory tree structure which lies beneath it.. The syntax to use to rm command is: $ rm <file1> <file2> <fileN> $ rm -r <directory1> <directory2> <directoryN> <target

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How to Exclude a Directory While Finding Files in Linux

Details: In Linux, the find command is used to search for files or folders from the command line.It is a complex command and has a large number of options, arguments, and modes. The most common use of the find command is to search for files using either a regular expression or the complete filename(s) to be searched.. For example, to search for files with names starting with ‘file_’, we can run:

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How to Install and Use locate Command in Linux

Details: When you are working with the command line in Linux you need to know how to find files quickly.There are few utilities that can get the job done but you should know how to …

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How to Enable “Universe” Repository in Ubuntu

Details: ‘Universe‘ is one of the standard repositories in Ubuntu, which contains community maintained free and open-source software, as opposed to ‘Main‘, which contains free and open-source software maintained by Ubuntu’s parent company Canonical.

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How to Install Latest LibreOffice in Ubuntu Desktop

Details: LibreOffice is the most powerful, free, and open-source office productivity software suite, which is used by millions of users across the world due to its clean and easy-to-use interface with feature-packed tools that assist you to unleash your creativity and increase your productiveness.

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How to List All Upgradable Packages in Ubuntu, Debian & Mint

Details: A .deb is a software package file containing application files of a particular software and metadata file about its dependencies and versions. The software can be installed from the deb file using dpkg (Debian Package Manager) from the command line or from graphical applications (which use dpkg in the backend).. This format is used in all Debian-based Linux distributions, for example, Ubuntu

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How to Install VirtualBox in Different Linux Distributions

Details: Now we will go through the installation process. In this article, our main focus is to install Virtualbox on Fedora/RHEL/CentOS, Ubuntu, and its derivate distributions.Virtualbox can be installed on several Linux operating systems which includes the following:

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How to Convert Raw Camera Image to JPEG in Linux

Details: Whenever a picture is clicked with a digital camera, the image is stored in a raw format, i.e. without any algorithm run over it, or without any loss of data.

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How to Install RPM Packages in CentOS, RHEL & Fedora

Details: RPM (Formerly short for Red Hat Package Manager, now a recursive acronym for RPM Package Manager) is the name of both the package manager for installing software in Red Hat and RedHat based Linux distribution, and of the file format of these packages.. RPM package files with extension '.rpm' are similar to deb files in Debian and its derived distributions.

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How to Backup a Single MySQL Database from Command Line

Details: MySQL is a popular choice when it comes to relational database management systems.MySQL and its clones power a large percentage of the worldwide web today; the reason for it being its robustness and plethora of options available.. There are scenarios when a MySQL database needs to be backed up and saved in a file: either to secure a copy of the data as a backup or to copy …

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How to Find What IP Addresses are Connected to Linux

Details: A server is application software that listens to requests over a network and returns the requested files, data, etc. Linux machines have servers installed for many different protocols: Eg.

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How to Create and Restore VM Snapshots in VirtualBox

Details: VirtualBox Snapshots is a point-in-time copy that allows us to save the state of the machine and can restore the machine state whenever needed using snapshots.

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How to Set or Change Hostname in Fedora Linux

Details: Setting up hostname is an important task when you are installing the operating system. Hostnames are invented to make human life easy. When you have 100’s of machines in your network it is not easy to remember each machine with its IP address but with hostname it becomes easy.

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