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BEGINNER'S GUIDE FOR LINUX

Details: Hello Friends, Welcome to this exclusive edition “BEGINNER’S GUIDE FOR LINUX” by TecMint, this course module is specially designed and compiled for those beginners, who want to make their way into the Linux learning process and do the best in today’s IT organizations.This courseware is created as per requirements of the industrial environment with complete entrance to Linux, which will

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A Basic Guide to Different Stages of Linux Boot Process

Details: Kernel Initialization Process. Init is always the first program to be executed and is assigned the process ID or PID of 1. It’s the init process that spawns various daemons & mounts all partitions that are specified in the /etc/fstab file.. The kernel then mounts the initial RAM disk (initrd) which is a temporary root filesystem until the real root filesystem is mounted.

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How to Install a Kubernetes Cluster on CentOS 7

Details: Kubernetes Cluster Diagram Installation of Kubernetes Cluster on Master-Node. For Kubernetes to work, you will need a containerization engine. For this installation, we will use docker as it is the most popular.. The following steps will run on the Master-Node.. Step 1: Prepare Hostname, Firewall and SELinux

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How to Create and Run New Service Units in Systemd Using

Details: Create New Service Units in CentOS 7. To explain the above: we have created a unit of service type (you can also create units of target type), we have set it to be loaded after the network.target (you can understand that the booting procedure reaches the targets with a defined order) and we want every-time the service starts to execute a bash script with the name conup.sh which we are going to

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How to Increase SSH Connection Timeout in Linux

Details: Increase SSH Timeout. The Timeout value will be 1200 seconds * 3 = 3600 seconds.This is an equivalent of 1 hour, which implies that your ssh session will remain alive for idle time of 1 hour without dropping.. Alternatively, you can achieve the same result by specifying the ClientAliveInterval parameter alone.. ClientAliveInterval 3600 Once done, reload the OpenSSH daemon for the changes …

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How to Start Linux Command in Background and Detach

Details: Linux Process Running in Background Message Keep Linux Processes Running After Exiting Terminal. We will use disown command, it is used after the a process has been launched and put in the background, it’s work is to remove a shell job from the shell’s active list jobs, therefore you will not use fg, bg commands on that particular job anymore.. In addition, when you close the controlling

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3 Ways to Change a Users Default Shell in Linux

Details: In this article, we will describe how to change a user’s shell in Linux. The shell is a program that accepts and interprets commands; there are several shells such as bash, sh, ksh, zsh, fish and many other lesser known shells available on Linux.

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How to Create Multiple User Accounts in Linux

Details: Create Multiple User Accounts in Linux. Save the file and set the required permissions on it. $ sudo chmod 0600 users.txt Now run the newusers command with the input file to add the above user accounts at once. $ sudo newusers users.txt

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3 Ways to List All Installed Packages in RHEL, CentOS and

Details: Yum – List All Installed Packages 3. Using YUM-Utils. Yum-utils is an assortment of tools and programs for managing yum repositories, installing debug packages, source packages, extended information from repositories and administration.. To install it, run the command below as root, otherwise, use sudo command: # yum update && yum install yum-utils

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How to Configure Network Between Guest VM and Host in

Details: Configure Static IP Address for VM. From the screen shot above, you can see that there are three interfaces enabled on the virtual machine: lo – loopback interface; enp0s3 (Adapter 1) – for host-only communication which is using the DHCP as set in one of the previous steps and later configured with a static IP address.; enp0s8 (Adapter 2) – for connection to the Internet.

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How to Deploy Nginx on a Kubernetes Cluster

Details: In our last article, we have discussed how to set up and run a Kubernetes Cluster, let’s discuss how we can deploy NGINX service on our cluster.. I will run this deployment on a Virtual Machine Hosted by a public cloud provider. As it is with many public cloud services, many generally maintain a public and private IP scheme for their Virtual Machines.

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How to Mount and Unmount an ISO Image in RHEL/CentOS

Details: An ISO image or .iso (International Organization for Standardization) file is an archive file that contains a disk image called ISO 9660 file system format. Every ISO file have .ISO extension has defined format name taken from the ISO 9660 file system and specially used with CD/DVD Rom’s. In simple words an iso file is a disk image.

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How to Monitor Linux Commands Executed by System Users in

Details: Monitor Logged in Users. But to have a real-time view of the shell commands being run by another user logged in via a terminal or SSH, you can use the Sysdig tool in Linux.. Sydig is an open-source, cross-platform, powerful and flexible system monitoring, analysis and troubleshooting tool for Linux. It can be used for system exploration and debugging.

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How to Compress and Decompress a .bz2 File in Linux

Details: To compress a file(s), is to significantly decrease the size of the file(s) by encoding data in the file(s) using less bits, and it is normally a useful practice during backup and transfer of a file(s) over a network. On the other hand, decompressing a file(s) means restoring data in the file(s) to its original state.

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How to Use 'fsck' to Repair File System Errors in Linux

Details: Hi Ravi, I have an issue below on my Centos 7.7 64 bit, when i check the log /var/log/dmesg.. I have running RAID1 with two hard disk another one internal hard disk mount manually, now i have unmount another hard disk and showing below message. But the system is booting properly without any issue. Could you help me, what’s the issue and how to solve it.

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How to Install Linux OS on USB Drive and Run it On Any PC

Details: That’s it! Go, and collect all of these. It’s time to do something new. Step 1: Create Bootable Linux Installation Media. Use your Linux ISO image file to create a bootable USB installation media. You can use any software like Unetbootin, Gnome Disk Utility, Yumi Multi Boot, xboot, Live USB Creator, etc. to create bootable USB with the help of ISO image file.

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How to Install, Configure and Secure FTP Server in CentOS

Details: FTP (File Transfer Protocol) is a traditional and widely used standard tool for transferring files between a server and clients over a network, especially where no authentication is necessary (permits anonymous users to connect to a server). We must understand that FTP is unsecure by default, because it transmits user credentials and data without encryption.

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How to Install OpenVPN in Ubuntu 20.04

Details: OpenVPN is an open-source, fast, popular program for creating a VPN (Virtual Private Network).It uses both the TCP and UDP transmission protocols, and VPN tunnels are secured with OpenVPN protocol with SSL/TLS authentication, certificates, credentials, and optionally MAC address lock as well as multi-factor authentication.. It can be used on a wide variety of devices and systems.

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3 Ways to Create a Network Bridge in RHEL/CentOS 8

Details: Setting Up a Network Bridge Using nmcli Tool. nmcli is a widely-used, scriptable and powerful command-line tool to control NetworkManager and report network status. It communicates directly to NetworkManager and controls only system-wide connections. Importantly, it allows users to use abbreviations, as long as they are a unique prefix in the set of possible options.

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How to Configure Network Static IP Address on RHEL/CentOS 8/7

Details: The scope of this tutorial is to explain how we can edit and make changes to Network Configurations on RHEL/CentOS 8/7 from the command line only, and, more specifically how we can set up a Static IP address on network interfaces using system network-scripts, which is a must be configured to serve Internet-facing network services, and how to configure or change RHEL/CentOS system …

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How to Install and Configure GitLab on CentOS 8/7

Details: Gitlab is an open-source, powerful, robust, scalable, secure, as well as efficient software development and collaboration platform for all stages of the DevOps lifecycle.. It allows you to plan your development process; code, and verify; package software, and release it with an in-built continuous delivery feature; automate configurations management, and monitor software performance.

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How to Configure Network Static IP Address in Ubuntu 18.04

Details: Netplan is a new command-line network configuration utility introduced in Ubuntu 17.10 to manage and configure network settings easily in Ubuntu systems. It allows you to configure a network interface using YAML abstraction. It works in conjunction with the NetworkManager and systemd-networkd networking daemons (referred to as renderers, you can choose which one of these to use) …

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3 Ways to Set a Static IP Address in RHEL 8

Details: Configuring a static IP address for your Linux distribution is a fundamental task and should be completed in few easy steps. With the release of RHEL 8 public beta, you can now configure your network interface in a few different ways using NetworkManager utilities.. In this tutorial we are going to show you few different ways to set a static IP address on RHEL 8 installation.

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How to Install Kernel Headers in CentOS 7

Details: Install Kernel Headers in CentOS 7. After installing the kernel-devel package, you can find all the kernel headers files in /usr/src/kernels directory using following command. # ls -l /usr/src/kernels/$(uname -r) Note on a VPS (for instance a Linode VPS), a kernel may have a customized version name, in such scenario, you have to identify the kernel version manually and check the …

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How to Increase Disk Inode Number in Linux

Details: Create EXT Filesystem with Larger Inode Ratio. Besides, you can also use the -T flag to specify how the filesystem is going to be used so that mkfs.ext4 can choose optimal filesystem parameters for that use including the bytes-per-inode ratio. The configuration file /etc/mke2fs.conf contains the different supported usage types and many other configurations parameters.

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How to Enable HTTP/2 in Apache on Ubuntu

Details: That said, we are going to enable HTTP/2 on Apache on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS and Ubuntu 18.04 LTS.. Prerequisites: Before getting started, ensure that you enable HTTPS on the Apache webserver before enabling HTTP/2.This is because all mainstream web browsers support HTTP/2 over HTTPS.I have a domain name pointed to an instance on Ubuntu 20.04 which is running Apache …

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How to Configure and Manage Network Connections Using

Details: Configure Network Ethernet Connection Using nmcli Tool. I have seen many administrators using nmtui for simplicity. However using nmcli saves your time, gives you confidence, can use it in scripts and it’s the first tool to use in order to troubleshoot your Linux server networking and bring back rapidly its functionality.. Seeing many comments asking help about nmcli, I decided to write this

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How to Install PHP 7.4 on CentOS 8

Details: PHP, a recursive acronym for PHP Hypertext Preprocessor, is a popular server-side scripting language used in web development for creating powerful and dynamic websites.. In this article, you will learn how to install PHP 7.4 on CentOS 8 Linux.. Step 1: Add EPEL and Remi Repositories. To get started, you need to add EPEL & Remi repository from where you will be able to install PHP 7.4 …

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How to Use 'Yum History' to Find Out Installed or Removed

Details: YUM is an interactive, rpm based, high level package manager for RHEL/CentOS systems, it enables users to install new packages, remove/erase old/unwanted packages. It can automatically run system updates and does dependency analysis, and also perform queries on the installed packages and/or available packages plus so much more.. In this article, we will explain how to …

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How to Install Flameshot Screenshot Tool in Linux

Details: Flameshot is an open-source screenshot tool available for Linux, Mac, and Windows.It is created with C++ and QT5 language. Every popular Linux distribution comes with a screenshot tool but they lack few functionalities that flameshot offers.. Some of the popular features include. Supports graphical and CLI mode. Edit images instantly. Image uploads to Imgur.

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How to Install and Configure VNC Server in CentOS 7

Details: In this guide we’ll explain how to install and configure VNC Remote Access in latest release of CentOS 7 and RHEL 7 Desktop edition via tigervnc-server program.. VNC (Virtual Network Computing) is a server-client protocol which allows user accounts to remotely connect and control a distant system by using the resources provided by the Graphical User Interface.

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How to Add a New Disk to an Existing Linux Server

Details: It will not merge the old /home folder, instead, it will replace it.. What I would do is: make a good backup of your server. sudo su (or login as root). mount the new drive (with the correct fstab entry: UUID=[drive uuid] /home_new ext4 defaults 0 0) to /home_new. sync the old home folder to the new home folder: rsync -av /home/ /home_new/. rename the old home folder: mv /home /home_old.

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How to Create SSH Tunneling or Port Forwarding in Linux

Details: SSH tunneling (also referred to as SSH port forwarding) is simply routing the local network traffic through SSH to remote hosts. This implies that all your connections are secured using encryption. It provides an easy way of setting up a basic VPN (Virtual Private Network), useful for connecting to private networks over unsecure public networks like the Internet.

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How to Install WordPress with Nginx in Ubuntu 20.04

Details: Today, over 36% of the web runs on the WordPress platform, as it is one of the most widely used open-source content management systems for creating a website or blog using its powerful features, beautiful designs, and above all, the freedom to build anything you want.. Read Also: How to Install WordPress with Apache in Ubuntu 20.04. In this article, you will learn how to install WordPress …

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Install Latest 'Thunderbird' Email Client in Linux Systems

Details: Thunderbird is an open-source free cross-platform web based email, news, and chat client application that is designed to handle multiple email accounts and news feeds.. On July 17, 2020, the Mozilla team announced the release of Thunderbird 78.0.This new version comes with a new look and plethora of new features and they are: Thunderbird 78.0 Features. New Account Hub for centralized …

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How to Install and Configure FTP Server in Ubuntu

Details: FTP (File Transfer Protocol) is a relatively old and most used standard network protocol used for uploading/downloading files between two computers over a network.However, FTP by its original insecure, because it transmits data together with user credentials (username and password) without encryption. Warning: If you planning to use FTP, consider configuring FTP connection with SSL/TLS …

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10 Practical Examples Using Wildcards to Match Filenames

Details: Match Characters in Filenames How to Negate a Set of Characters in Linux. 10. You can as well negate a set of characters using the ! symbol. The following command lists all filenames starting with users-i, followed by a number, any valid file naming character apart from a number, then a lower or upper case letter and ends with one or more occurrences of any character.

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Disable Apache Web Directory Listing Using .htaccess File

Details: Securing your apache web server is one of the most important task, specially when you setting up a new website.. For example, if you create a new website directory called “tecmint” under your Apache server (/var/www/tecmint or /var/www/html/tecmint) and forgot to place an “index.html” file in it, you may surprised to know that all your website visitors can get a complete listing of all

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How to Install Moodle Learning Platform with Nginx in CentOS 8

Details: Creating a Domain DNS Record for Moodle Website. 1. Start by creating a subdomain that users will use to access the Moodle online learning site. For example, if your domain name is testprojects.me, you can create a subdomain called learning.testprojects.me.. Open your domain name’s advanced DNS settings and add an A record as shown in the following image.

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A Shell Script to Monitor Network, Disk Usage, Uptime

Details: The duty of System Administrator is really tough as he/she has to monitor the servers, users, logs, create backup and blah blah blah. For the most repetitive task most of the administrator write a script to automate their day-to-day repetitive task. Here we have written a shell Script that do not aims to automate the task of a typical system admin, but it may be helpful at places and specially

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How to Watch TCP and UDP Ports in Real-time

Details: In the above command, the flag:-t – enables listing of TCP ports.-u – enables listing of UDP ports.-l – prints only listening sockets.-n – shows the port number.-p – show process/program name.; Watch TCP and UDP Open Ports in Real-Time. However, to watch TCP and UDP ports in real-time, you can run the netstat or ss tool with the watch utility as shown.

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How to Install Go in Ubuntu 20.04

Details: Go is a popular programming language created by Google. The first release was on November 10, 2009, and version 1.0 was released in 2012. It is a pretty new language compared to languages like Java, Python, C, C++, etc.. which has been in the market for more than 15 plus years.

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How to Configure and Maintain High Availability/Clustering

Details: High Availability (HA) simply refers to a quality of a system to operate continuously without failure for a long period of time.HA solutions can be implemented using hardware and/or software, and one of the common solutions to implementing HA is clustering.

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7 Tools to Encrypt/Decrypt and Password Protect Files in Linux

Details: Linux distribution provides a few standard encryption/decryption tools that can prove to be handy at times. Here in this article we have covered 7 such tools with proper standard examples.

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How to Monitor Node.js Applications Using PM2 Web Dashboard

Details: PM2 is a popular daemon process manager for Nodejs with a complete feature set for a production environment, that will help you manage and keep your application online 24/7.. A process manager is a “container” for applications that facilitates deployment, enables you to manage (start, restart, stop, etc..) the application at runtime, and provides for high availability.

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